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Really Useful Logging and Event Repository (RULER) Project

What is the RULER project?

I was often coming across issues where I would see logs from different applications and thought there has to be a good way of recording what we should be looking for in a forensic investigation.

For example - what are the quick wins in a remote access application to identify when it was used. Or what types of useful information can be found for a specific anti-virus application (especially if it encodes the data)

The bulk of this is compiled from the references listed on each page. Full credit goes to everyone that put in a lot of hard work and tested each of these applications. It does take time to put together each resource and I'm very grateful to be able to help curate and centralise this knowledge in the hopes that it helps speed up investigations.

Caveat Emptor

It should be noted that this information should be used as a guide only. What is and isn't recorded by an application may be similar across products made by an organisation, or may be vastly different between application versions. Should you choose to rely on this information without testing it for yourself you do so at your own risk.


For more riguourous testing and documentation I suggest that you document your findings in a blog, and obtain a degree of verificaiton and validation through the DFIR Review project.

What is the RULER project not?

Currently I have no plans on documenting 'what you should log', this is more about what is enabled by default.

Some great projects to look at include What2log and the Windows logging cheat sheets

The focus is also on the information relevant to an investigation - what did an attacker or application do on this system. At the moment this is endpoint focused, and I welcome pull requests for additional categories of log source.


  • Include other types of logs such as mail and web server logs for different applications, or different file sharing solutions. Stubs have been made, documentation has not been created.
  • Store the data in a YAML or database format and generate the MK files to allow for ingestion into other tools. This would likely be a fairly large undertaking and without thoroughly testing all versions of all products regularly this may be more effort than it's worth.
  • Start getting samples into the DFIR Artifact museum

How to contribute

All the source files are on Github. Please make sure to reference where appropriate. This is still very much a work in progress and I'm not 100% sold on the format for each page that I've chosen.

If you have any suggestions or want to contribute, please submit an issue or pull request.

Current contributors